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Other information

On this page you can find more general other information about doping substances and performance and image enhancing drugs, adverse effects and harm reduction.

Anabolic steroids and male reproductive health

Anabolic androgens have a significant effect on gonadal function, causing one’s own testicular androgen and sperm production to fail. The effects are individual-specific and they cannot be predicted.

Anabolic steroids cause long-standing changes in the brain

Testosterone and anabolic steroids have been found to affect the central nervous system in laboratory animals and humans. Their locations of affect in the brain are closely linked to centres that regulate mood, sexuality and aggression.

Anabolic steroids dependence

It has been estimated that up to a third of anabolic steroid users experience dependence. The dependence shows up as the chronic use of anabolic steroids at high doses and using multiple substances over a long period of time, despite the physical and psychosocial harm they cause.

Androgens and testosterone replacement therapy

The link between hormonal disorders and the abused of anabolic steroids and testosterone is proved by a number of scientific studies. Testosterone replacement therapy mainly consists of pharmacological treatments administered for the replacement of testosterone production decreasing with age.

Examination of the adverse effects of anabolic steroids

This article describes what a doctor should examine when the adverse effects caused by steroid use are suspected.

Interactions of anabolic steroids and intoxicants

Anabolic steroid users have been found to abuse an extremely great variety of substances or medicines. This article focuses on a few of the most frequently used intoxicants: amphetamine, ecstasy, cocaine, cannabis and alcohol.


Gynaecomastia is one of the most common side effects caused by anabolic steroids. In several studies, up to a third of users have reported gynaecomastia caused by anabolic steroids.

Risks of intramuscular injection

Intramuscular injection i.e. injection of anabolic steroids, testosterone and other doping substances always involves risks.

Safer injection of anabolic steroids

This article is written for people who use testosterone and anabolic steroids by injection and for health professionals who treat them in the course of their work. The purpose of this article is to reduce the potential harm resulting from injecting anabolic steroids. 

Special characteristics of doping in women

There are much fewer studies on women’s use of doping substances than men’s. A common assumption is that women prefer to use other doping substances rather than anabolic steroids because of their androgenic or masculinising effects. However, anabolic steroids are one of the most common groups of doping substances used by female elite athletes.

Testosterone, anabolic steroids and aggression

Among doping substances, testosterone and anabolic steroids in particular are often associated with aggressive and impulsive behaviour, or so-called roid rage. Anabolic steroids, aggressive behaviour and violence are linked, but the causality is not clear.