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naisten doping

Naisten dopingin käytön erityispiirteet

Naisten dopingin käyttö on huomattavasti harvinaisempaa kuin miesten. Tässä tietoartikkelissa kerrotaan eroista naisten ja miesten dopingkäytön tavoissa, motiiveissa ja vaikutuksissa. 

[1] Sagoe D, Molde H, Andreassen C, Torsheim T, Pallesen S. The global epidemiology of anabolic-androgenic steroid use: a meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis. Annals of Epidemiol. 2014; 24:383–398

[2] Sagoe D, Torsheim T, Molde H, Andreassen C, Pallesen S. Anabolic-androgenic steroid use in the Nordic countries: A meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis. Nord Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2015; 32:1

[3] Hakkarainen P, Karjalainen K, Ojajärvi A, Salasuo M. Huumausaineiden ja kuntodopingin käyttö ja niitä koskevat mielipiteet Suomessa vuonna 2014. Yhteiskuntapolitiikka 80 (2015):4

[4] Bermon S. Androgens and athletic performance of elite female athletes. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2017;24(3):246–251

[5] Ip E, Barnett M, Tenerowicz M, Kim J, Wei H, Perry P. Women and anabolic steroids: An analysis of a dozen users. Clin J Sport Med. 2010; 20:475-481

[6] Angoorani H, Jalali M, Halabchi F. Anabolic-androgenic steroids and prohibited substances misuse among Iranian recreational female bodybuilders and its associated psycho-socio-demographic factors. Addict Health. 2018;10(4):216–222

[7] Börjesson A, Lehtihet M, Andersson A, Dahl M, Vicente V, Ericsson M, Ekström L. Studies of athlete biological passport biomarkers and clinical parameters in male and female users of anabolic androgenic steroids and other doping agents. Drug Test Anal. 2020;12(4):514–523

[8] Van Hout, Hearne E. Netnography of female use of the synthetic growth hormone CJC-1295: Pulses and Potions. Subs Use Misuse. 2016;51(1):73–84 

[9] Abrahin O, Souza N, de Sousa E, Santos A, Bahrke M. Anabolic-androgenic steroid use among Brazilian women: an exploratory investigation. J Subst Use. 2016;22(3):246–252

[10] Börjesson A, Gårevik N, Dahl ML, Rane A, Ekström L. Recruitment to doping and help-seeking behavior of eight female AAS users. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Pol. 2016; 11:11

[11] Jespersen M. “Definitely not for women”: An online community’s reflections on women’s use of performance enhancing drugs in recreational sports. Teoksessa: Tolleneer J, Sterckx S, Bonte P. Athletic enhancement, human nature and ethics. Threats and opportunities of doping technologies. International library of ethics of law and the new medicine 52. 2012, s.201–218

[12] Gruber A, Pope Jr H. Psychiatric and medical effects of anabolic-androgenic steroid use in women. Psychother Psychosom. 2000; 69:19–26 

[13] Havnes I, Jørstad M, Bjørnebekk A. Double trouble? A mixed methods study exploring experiences with combined use of anabolic-androgenic steroids and psychoactive substances among women. Performance Enhancement and Health. 2021;9(3):10019

[14] Committee on gynecologic practice. Performance enhancing anabolic steroid abuse in women. Committee opinion, The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2011:117;4 

[15] Henning A, Andreasson J.” Ya, another lady starting a log!”: Women’s fitness doping and the gendered space of an online doping forum. Comm Sport. 2019:1-20

[16] HUS. Testosteroni, seerumista. huslab.fi, päivitetty 4.3.2022

[17] Huang G, Basaria S. Do anabolic-androgenic steroids have performance-enhancing effects in female athletes? Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2018; 464:56–64

[18] Sarikaya H, Peters C, Schulz T, Schönfelder, Michna H. 2007. Biomedical Side Effects of Doping. International Symposium Munich, Germany. “Harmonising the Knowledge About Biomedical Side Effects of Doping” -Project of the European Union

[19] Andreasson J, Henning A. Challenging hegemony through narrative: Centering women’s experiences and establishing a sis-science culture through a women-only doping forum. Comm Sport. 2021;1–22

[20] Havnes I, Jørstad M, Innerdal I, Bjørnebekk A. Anabolic-androgenic steroid use among women – A qualitative study on experiences of masculinizing, gonadal and sexual effects. Int J Drug Policy. 2020;102876

[21] Büttner A, Thieme D. Side effects of anabolic androgenic steroids: Pathological findings and structure-activity relationships. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2010;(195):459–84

[22] Huang G, Pencina K, Coady J, Beleva Y, Bhasin S, Basaria S. Functional voice testing detects early changes in vocal pitch in women during testosterone administration. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015;100(6):2254–60 

Dinitrofenoli (DNP)

Dinitrofenolit ovat kuuden eri synteettisen aineen muodostama kemikaaliryhmä. Tärkein näistä on 2,4,-dinitrofenoli, jota yleisesti kutsutaan DNP:ksi. Tässä tietoartikkelissa kerrotaan DNP:n ominaisuksista ja vaikutusmekanismista, käytöstä ja haittavaikutuksista.

[1] Harris & Cocoran (1995): Toxicological Profile for Dinitrophenols. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Luettu 20.1.2010
[2] Leftwich, Floro, Neal & Wood. Dinitrophenol poisoning: a diagnosis to consider in undiagnosed fever. Southern Medical Journal. 1982;75(2): 182–4
[3] Miranda, McIntyre, Parker, Gary & Logan. Two deaths attributed to the use of 2,4-dinitrophenol. Journal of analytical toxicology. 2006;30(3): 219–22
[4] Hsiao, Santucci, Seo-Mayer, Mariappan, Hodsdon, Banasiak, Baum. Pediatric fatality following ingestion of dinitrophenol: postmortem identification of a "dietary supplement". Clinical Toxicology (Philadelphia). 2005;43(4):281-5
[5] Petróczi A, Ocampo J, Shah I, Jenkinson C, New R, James R, Taylor G, Naughton D. Russian roulette with unlicensed fat-burner drug 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP): evidence from a multidisciplinary study of the internet, bodybuilding supplements and DNP users. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. 2015; 10:39
[6] Bleasdale E, Thrower S, Petróczi A. Would you use with a seal of approval? Important attributes of 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) as a hypothetical pharmaceutical product. Front Psychiatry. 2018; 9:124