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Gynekomastia eli miehen rintakudoksen kasvu on yksi yleisimmistä anabolisten steroidien aiheuttamista haittavaikutuksista. Tässä tietoartikkelissa kerrotaan gynekomastian oireista sekä hoitomuodoista.

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[2] Mustajoki P. Rintojen kasvu miehellä (gynekomastia). 2022. Lääkärikirja Duodecim 

[3] Ferguson A, Cervinski M. Endocrine disorders of the reproductive system: Gynecomastia. Kirjassa: Winter W, Holmquist B, Sokoll L, Bertholf R. Handbook of diagnostic endocrinology. 3. painos. 2020. s. 173-174 

[4] Bonnecaze A, O’Connor T, Aloi J. Characteristics and attitudes of men using anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS): A survey of 2385 Men. Am J Men Health. 2020:1–12 

[5] Smit D, de Ronde W. Outpatient clinic for users of anabolic androgenic steroids: an overview. Neth J Med. 2018;76(4):167 

[6] Bond P, Smit D, de Ronde W. Anabolic-androgenic steroids: How do they work and what are the risks? Front Endocrinol. 2022; 13:1059473 

[7] Kanakis G, Nordkap L, Bang A, Calogero, Bártfai G, Corona G, Forti G, Toppari J, Goulis D, Jørgense N. EAA clinical practice guidelines-gynecomastia evaluation and management. Andrology. 2019;7(6):778-793 

[8] Rahnema C, Lipshultz L, Crosnoe L, Kovac J, Kim E. Anabolic steroid-induced hypogonadism: diagnosis and treatment. Fertility Sterility. 2014;101(5):1271-1279 

[9] Ranta V. Gynekomastian syy ei aina selviä. Suomen lääkärilehti. 2014;69(43):2795–2799 

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Testosteroni, anaboliset steroidit ja aggressiivisuus

Testosteroni, anaboliset steroidit ja aggressiivisuus ovat yhteydessä toisiinsa, mutta syy-seuraussuhde ei ole selkeä. Tässä tietoartikkelissa esitellään aggression mahdollisia taustatekijöitä ja anabolisten steroidien vaikutuksia käytökseen ja mielialaan.

Birger M, Swartz M, Cohen D, Alesh Y, Grishpan C, Kotelr M. Aggression: The testosterone-serotonin link. IMAJ. 2003; 5:653–658 

Bjørnebekk A, Kaufmann T, Hauger L, Westlye L. Long-term anabolic androgenic steroid use is associated with deviant brain aging. Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging. 2021;6(5):579-589 

Bjørnebekk A, Westlye LT, Walhovd KB, Jørstad ML, Sundseth ØØ, Fjell AM. Cognitive performance and structural brain correlates in long-term anabolic-androgenic steroid exposed and nonexposed weightlifters. Neuropsychology. 2019;33(4):547–559 

Blankers S, Galea L. Androgens and adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Androg Clin Res Ther. 2021;2(1):203-215 

Bontempi L, Bonci A. µ-Opioid receptor-induced synaptic plasticity in dopamine neurons mediates the rewarding properties of anabolic androgenic steroids. Sci Signal. 2020;13(647): eaba1169 

Carré J, Geniole S, Bird M, Videto A, Bonin P. Exogenous testosterone rapidly increases aggressive behavior in dominant and impulsive men. Biol Psychiatry. 2017;82(4):249–256 

Chegeni R, Notelaers G, Pallesen S, Sagoe D. Aggression and psychological distress in male and female anabolic-androgenic steroid users: a multigroup laten class analysis. Front Psychiatry. 2021; 12:629428 

Chegeni R, Pallesen S, McVeigh J, Sagoe D. Anabolic-androgenic steroid administration increases self-reported aggression in healthy males: a systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental studies. Psychopharmacology. 2021;238(7):1911-1922 

Christoffersen T, Andersen J, Dalhoff K, Horwitz H. Anabolic-androgenic steroids and the risk of imprisonment. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2019; 203:92-97 

Corsini W, Esteves A, Rossi Jr W, de Almeida Hermes T, Damião B, Rodrigues M. Association between neuronal degeneration and supraphysiological doses of two types of anabolic steroids in rat brain. 2022; 188:109121. Steroids 

Cunningham R, Lumia A, McGinnis M. Androgen receptors, sex behaviour and aggression. Neuroendocrinology. 2012:96(2):131-140 

Ganson K, Jackson D, Testa A, Nagata J. Performance-enhancing substance use and intimate partner violence: a prospective cohort study. J Interp Viol. 2022:0(0):1-22 

Geniole S, Procyshyn T, Marley N, Ortiz T, Bird B, Marcellus A, Welker K, Bonin P, Goldfarb B, Watson N, Carré J. Using a Psychopharmacogenetic Approach To Identify the Pathways Through Which—and the People for Whom—Testosterone Promotes Aggression. Psychol Sci. 2019:30(4):481-494 

Griffiths, S, Brendan J, Degenhardt, L   Murray, S, Larance, B. Appearance concerns are uniquely associated with the severity of steroid dependence and depression in anabolic–androgenic steroid users. Drug and Alcohol Review. 2018 37 (5), 664-670 

Haug E, Mørland J, Olaisen B, Myhre K. Androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) and violent behaviour. Report from Norwegian knowledge centre for health services. No. 04–2004 

Hauger L, Sagoe D, Vaskinn A, Arnevik E, Leknes S, Jørstad M, Bjørnebekk A. Anabolic androgenic steroid dependence is associated with impaired emotion recognition. Psychopharmacology. 2019;236(9):2667–2676 

Hauger L, Westlye L, Fjell A, Walhovd K, Bjørnebekk A. Structural brain characteristics of anabolis-androgenic steroid dependence in men. Addiction. 2019;114(8):1405–1415 

Kaufman MJ, Janes AC, Hudson JI, Brennan BP, Kanayama G, Kerrigan AR, Jensen JE, Pope HG Jr.Brain and cognition abnormalities in long-term anabolic-androgenic steroid users. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015; 152:47–56 

Middleman A, DuRant R. Anabolic steroid use and associated health risk behaviours. Sports Mes. 1996;21(4):251–5  

Neave N. Hormones and behaviour: A psychological approach.  2008; 22:1. Cambridge University Press 

Nelson B, Hildebrandt T, Wallisch P. Anabolic-androgenic steroid use is associated with psychopathy, risk-taking, anger, and physical problems. Sci Rep. 2022;12(1):9133 

Nelson R, Tranor B. Neural mechanisms of aggression. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 2007; 8:536–546 

Pomara C, Neri M, Bello S, Fiore C, Riezzo I, Turillazzi E. Neurotoxicity by synthetic androgen steroids: oxidative stress, apoptosis, and neuropathology: a review. Current neuropharmacology. 2015; 13:132-145 

Pope HG Jr, Kouri EM, Hudson JI. Effects of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone on mood and aggression in normal men: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000;57(2):133–40 

Sagoe D, Mentzoni R, Hanss D, Pallesen S. Aggression is associated with increased anabolic-androgenic steroid use contemplation among adolescents. Substance Use & Misuse. 2016;51(11):1462¬1469 

Salasuo M, Piispa M. 2012. Kuntodoping: Näkökulmia dopingaineiden käyttöön huippu-urheilun ulkopuolella. Nuorisotutkimusseura/ Nuorisotutkimusverkosto, julkaisuja 120 

Scarth M, Bjørnebekk A. Androgen abuse and the brain. Curr Opin Endocrinol Dioabet. Obesity. 2021;28(6):604-614 

Naisten dopingin käytön erityispiirteet

Naisten dopingin käyttö on huomattavasti harvinaisempaa kuin miesten. Tässä tietoartikkelissa kerrotaan eroista naisten ja miesten dopingkäytön tavoissa, motiiveissa ja vaikutuksissa. 

[1] Sagoe D, Molde H, Andreassen C, Torsheim T, Pallesen S. The global epidemiology of anabolic-androgenic steroid use: a meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis. Annals of Epidemiol. 2014; 24:383–398

[2] Sagoe D, Torsheim T, Molde H, Andreassen C, Pallesen S. Anabolic-androgenic steroid use in the Nordic countries: A meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis. Nord Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2015; 32:1

[3] Hakkarainen P, Karjalainen K, Ojajärvi A, Salasuo M. Huumausaineiden ja kuntodopingin käyttö ja niitä koskevat mielipiteet Suomessa vuonna 2014. Yhteiskuntapolitiikka 80 (2015):4

[4] Bermon S. Androgens and athletic performance of elite female athletes. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2017;24(3):246–251

[5] Ip E, Barnett M, Tenerowicz M, Kim J, Wei H, Perry P. Women and anabolic steroids: An analysis of a dozen users. Clin J Sport Med. 2010; 20:475-481

[6] Angoorani H, Jalali M, Halabchi F. Anabolic-androgenic steroids and prohibited substances misuse among Iranian recreational female bodybuilders and its associated psycho-socio-demographic factors. Addict Health. 2018;10(4):216–222

[7] Börjesson A, Lehtihet M, Andersson A, Dahl M, Vicente V, Ericsson M, Ekström L. Studies of athlete biological passport biomarkers and clinical parameters in male and female users of anabolic androgenic steroids and other doping agents. Drug Test Anal. 2020;12(4):514–523

[8] Van Hout, Hearne E. Netnography of female use of the synthetic growth hormone CJC-1295: Pulses and Potions. Subs Use Misuse. 2016;51(1):73–84 

[9] Abrahin O, Souza N, de Sousa E, Santos A, Bahrke M. Anabolic-androgenic steroid use among Brazilian women: an exploratory investigation. J Subst Use. 2016;22(3):246–252

[10] Börjesson A, Gårevik N, Dahl ML, Rane A, Ekström L. Recruitment to doping and help-seeking behavior of eight female AAS users. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Pol. 2016; 11:11

[11] Jespersen M. “Definitely not for women”: An online community’s reflections on women’s use of performance enhancing drugs in recreational sports. Teoksessa: Tolleneer J, Sterckx S, Bonte P. Athletic enhancement, human nature and ethics. Threats and opportunities of doping technologies. International library of ethics of law and the new medicine 52. 2012, s.201–218

[12] Gruber A, Pope Jr H. Psychiatric and medical effects of anabolic-androgenic steroid use in women. Psychother Psychosom. 2000; 69:19–26 

[13] Havnes I, Jørstad M, Bjørnebekk A. Double trouble? A mixed methods study exploring experiences with combined use of anabolic-androgenic steroids and psychoactive substances among women. Performance Enhancement and Health. 2021;9(3):10019

[14] Committee on gynecologic practice. Performance enhancing anabolic steroid abuse in women. Committee opinion, The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2011:117;4 

[15] Henning A, Andreasson J.” Ya, another lady starting a log!”: Women’s fitness doping and the gendered space of an online doping forum. Comm Sport. 2019:1-20

[16] HUS. Testosteroni, seerumista. huslab.fi, päivitetty 4.3.2022

[17] Huang G, Basaria S. Do anabolic-androgenic steroids have performance-enhancing effects in female athletes? Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2018; 464:56–64

[18] Sarikaya H, Peters C, Schulz T, Schönfelder, Michna H. 2007. Biomedical Side Effects of Doping. International Symposium Munich, Germany. “Harmonising the Knowledge About Biomedical Side Effects of Doping” -Project of the European Union

[19] Andreasson J, Henning A. Challenging hegemony through narrative: Centering women’s experiences and establishing a sis-science culture through a women-only doping forum. Comm Sport. 2021;1–22

[20] Havnes I, Jørstad M, Innerdal I, Bjørnebekk A. Anabolic-androgenic steroid use among women – A qualitative study on experiences of masculinizing, gonadal and sexual effects. Int J Drug Policy. 2020;102876

[21] Büttner A, Thieme D. Side effects of anabolic androgenic steroids: Pathological findings and structure-activity relationships. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2010;(195):459–84

[22] Huang G, Pencina K, Coady J, Beleva Y, Bhasin S, Basaria S. Functional voice testing detects early changes in vocal pitch in women during testosterone administration. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015;100(6):2254–60